Ushiro ryōkatadori kokyūnage und zenpōnage

2020-03-26

Ushiro ryōkatadori kokyūnage

in the exam for 2nd kyu

kokyūnage (呼吸投げ, breathing throw)
use your hand to lead the mind of uke

Ushiro ryōkatadori zenpōnage

in the exam for 2nd kyu

zenpōnage (前後投げ, forward throw)
lead the mind of uke to one of his arms so that he follows it to the ground

Koichi Tōhei

Koichi Tōhei (January 20, 1920 - May 19, 2011) was a Japanese martial artist, 10th Dan Aikido and founder of the Ki Society (Ki no Kenkyūkai) and his own Aikido school, officially called Shin Shin Tōitsu Aikidō (which literally means "Aikido in unity of mind and body"), but is generally called Ki-Aikidō.
As a boy Tohei was tender and frail. That's why his father let him learn judo. Due to pleurisy, he decided to replace judo training with Zen meditation and misogi exercises. After healing pleurisy, Tohei was convinced that it was his efforts to train the mind and develop his Ki that left healthy. Then he practiced judo again, but Tohei wanted more.
In 1940, at the age of 19, his judo teacher Shohei Mori advised him to meet Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido. Tohei had some doubts about aikido and its value when he first met an aikido teacher and saw him practice some techniques in the Ueshiba dojo. However, his mind changed when Ueshiba entered the dojo and started practicing his techniques on the instructor. Tohei was not entirely convinced until Ueshiba asked him to get on the tatami and attack him. Tohei's attempts were in vain and after this demonstration, Tohei immediately asked to be admitted to the dojo. However, Tohei continued to train both his body and mind with meditation and misogi, in addition to aikido.

Ki no Kenkyūkai

Tohei studied under Ueshiba for six months before being assigned to teaching at Shumei School in Okawa and the Academy of Military Police.
In 1953 Tohei was sent to Hawaii to spread Aikido.
In 1969 Tohei was asked by Ueshiba to take the rank of 10th Dan.
After Morihei Ueshiba's death in 1969, his son Kisshomaru Ueshiba inherited the title of Dōshu, while Koichi Tohei was the main instructor of Hombu Dōjō, the headquarters of Aikikai.
Because of differences in the teaching of Aikido, he founded Ki No Kenkyukai in 1971 and left Aikikai on May 1, 1974.
From 1977 Kenjiro Yoshigasaki became the representative of Ki No Kenkyukai in Europe.
After Koichi Tohei's death in 2011, his son Shinichi Tohei became head of Ki no Kenkyukai in Japan, which is now called Shin Shin Tōitsu Aikidōkai.

Tohei's teaching

After World War II, Tohei also studied with Tempu Nakamura, a Japanese yoga master, who taught positive thinking and the unification of mind and body (shin shin tōitsu dō).
Tohei therefore formulated four basic principles, which were later joined by a number of sub-principles:

  1. Keep one point
  2. Relax completely
  3. Keep weight underside
  4. Extend Ki

A common saying of Tohei on the mat was "There is something wrong". He then showed how students could improve their understanding and execution of the techniques.
Tohei was famous for his Ki tests like the unbendable arm, or the "unliftable body". What to many at first looked like a fake turned out to be achievabel with regular practice.

Typical of Tohei were, among others

  • a clear rhythm in the techniques,
  • jumps to apply aikido to large or heavy uke,
  • the requirement to lead the mind of Uke, whereby he usually indicated the direction with his fingers.